Wednesday, September 15, 2010
Monday, February 22, 2010
Tuesday, June 9, 2009
Japan's Atomic Fate
One single bomb from one single plane could now inflict the same amount of damage as 220 B-29s carrying over 1,600 tons of incendiary and high explosive bombs (
This single weapon was developed and used by the
There is now, however, clear evidence that shows
The officials of the
The end of the war, whether caused by the atomic bomb or not, did obliterate any need for an invasion, and therefore, saved lives. There is, however, fiction mingled in with that fact. Historian William Lanouette, in "Why We Dropped the Bomb", stated that as "questions were raised after the war" over the need for atomic attacks, "administration officials cited higher and higher casualty figures to justify their decision." (31).
President Truman, months after the end of the war, declared that "a quarter of a million of the flower of our young manhood were worth a couple Japanese cities." Yet in his Memoirs, published in 1955, Truman doubled that figure and estimated that over 500,000 American lives were saved by not invading Japan and British Prime Minister Churchill, who hailed the bomb as a "miracle of deliverance" declared that it saved over a million (Lanouette 31).
Of course, based on these appalling figures, the Allied statements after the war seemed to have merit and to justify their decision. The number of actual casualties estimated in an invasion of
United States Army Chief of Staff, General George C. Marshall, informed President Truman quite early in the spring of 1945 that an assault on the
Any invasion, according to later intelligence studies, was only a "remote possibility" (Alperovitz, Historians 16). Even without the atomic bombing on August 6, the "U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey" Summary Report concluded that Japan would have surrendered "even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated." (26). The state of
The Joint Intelligence Committee, an advisory group to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reported on April 29 that more and more Japanese civilians and military personnel were beginning to understand they were defeated. "Once the Japanese people, as well as their leaders, were persuaded both that absolute defeat was inevitable and that unconditional surrender did not imply national annihilation, surrender might follow fairly quickly." (Alperovitz, Historians 20). Such a sense of defeat was spreading throughout
"The Japanese fleet has been reduced to practical impotency" declared Allied Commander General Douglas MacArthur. "The Japanese Air Force has been reduced to a line of action which involves uncoordinated, suicidal attacks against our forces." (Alperovitz, Why 24). Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, agreed with that summation. In his words, the Japanese navy had ‚"practically ceased to exist." (Stimson 618). Stimson also pointed out
The Japanese Navy was in extremely poor condition. Out of 12 battleships, 11 were sunk. Out of 26 carriers, 20 were at the bottom of the ocean and 38 out of 43 cruisers were likewise destroyed. "The few ships that remained afloat were for the most part so heavily damaged as to be of no military value" declared Admiral King (Strauss 186). In the month of July alone, Admiral Halsey's command destroyed or damaged 2,804 planes, 148 combat ships, and 1598 merchant ships (Strauss 187). Shigenori
To many military commanders,
A top-secret War Department study conducted in April of 1946, made the point that
In his Memoirs, President Truman stated that he "never had any doubt that it [the bomb] should be used." (Truman 419). That the
"That saving lives was not the highest priority seems obvious from the choices made in July," Alperovitz claims (Historians 22). Such a blunt statement is not without its evidence.
President Roosevelt's Secretary of State, Joseph Grew, who stayed on for a few months after the swearing in of Truman, suggested in late May to clarify the terms of surrender, "an act that, if done, may have ended the war much sooner." In the period between Grew's initial suggestion and the final surrender on August 14, thousands of American soldiers died (Alperovitz, Historians 22). After meeting with Grew, President Truman said that an alteration of the terms to provide assurances that the Japanese emperor would not be taken out of power was a "sound idea" (Truman 416). The official surrender terms given to the Japanese on July 26, however, "made no mention of the Japanese emperor." (Stimson 625).
The importance of the retainment of Hirohito was great. The Japanese people considered their emperor to be a deity and without assurances of his safety, would like fight to the bitter end (Alperovitz, Historians 25). William Donovan, of the Office of Strategic Services, declared that "one of the few provisions the Japanese would insist upon would be the retention of the Emperor." (Alperovitz, Why 25). Many top officials, including Secretary Grew and Donovan, knew that a clearer definition of "unconditional surrender" was necessary. General Marshall of the Joint Chiefs recommended to President Truman that the Allied dictate not indicate that "unconditional surrender" did not mean dethronement of Hirohito (Alperovitz, Historians 18). Secretary Grew, a former ambassador to
Despite the widespread agreement among high officials, Secretary Grew and those who favored provisions for the Emperor were accused as being appeasers (Stimson 626). In the face of political ridicule, however, it was not until July, when Truman's own appointed Secretary of State, James Byrnes, replaced Grew, that the focus changed. Almost immediately, diplomatic terms became less important compared with domestic affairs and U.S.-Soviet postwar relations (Lanouette 36). After the first atomic test was a success, Secretary Brynes persuaded Truman to leave out any guarantee of the monarchy (Lanouette 32). Unfortunately, as Shigenori
Yet, why, with such obvious evidence and opinion available to the
In mid-June, General Marshall pointed out that the shock of a Soviet declaration against
The successful test of the atomic bomb changed everything. No longer did the
The Manhattan Project, responsible for the making of the bomb, consumed over 2 billion dollars through the course of its research and production (26 billion in today's standards). It employed more than 160,000 workers in 37 top-secret factories and labs nationwide (Lanouette 34). General Leslie Groves, the military officer directly in charge of the project, emphasized the expenditure. "Our work was extremely costly, both in money and in its interference with the rest of the war effort." (
The plan for using a Soviet declaration to lever a quick Japanese surrender, a plan of the Allies early in the summer, was rejected later on largely because of concerns about the future balance of power in
"When Russia came into the war against Japan, the Japanese would probably wish to get out on almost any terms short of the dethronement of the Emperor," stated British General Sir Hasting Ismay (Alperovitz, Why 26). No better prediction of the future could have existed. On August 10, the Soviets officially entered the war, just as was agreed during the Potsdam Conference. The invasion of
In the spring and summer of 1945, it was clear that
Alperovitz, Gar. "
35. Academic Search Premier. UMD Net.
Alperovitz, Gar. "Why the
Byrnes, James F. Speaking Frankly.
Grew, Joseph C. Turbulent Era.
Kase, Toshikasu. Journey to the
Lanouette, William. "Why We Dropped the Bomb." Civilization Jan/Feb. 1995: 28-
38. Academic Search Premier. UMD Net.
Leahy, William. I Was There.
Stimson, Henry L. and McGeorge Bundy. On Active Service in Peace and War.
Strauss, Lewis. Men and Decisions.
Truman, Harry S. Year of Decisions. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955. Vol. 1 of Memoirs. 2 vols.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Summary Report (Pacific War).
Saturday, April 19, 2008
Tuesday, March 13, 2007
Tuesday, December 5, 2006
The Death of Mr. Hyde
Sunday, December 3, 2006
Change Your Heart
9:14 AM - I feel like an asshole for being unable to believe you for your word. However, openness, honesty, and your ability to keep your promises have been lacking...
9:22 AM - You just don't understand the amount of pain I've suffered at your hands. And you don't understand me or my motives to respond, to question, to fear, to despair.
5:59 PM - You've missed something very fundamental about my character. And the tragedy of it all is how desperately I wanted you to see it...
12:38 AM - And sweet. I am back to being ignored. Awesome.
3:23 AM - There are things we have both said and done, some despicable, some wonderful, which cannot be unsaid or undone...
3:26 AM - Yet we have two options nonetheless. We can forgive. Or we can forget. The pain we have caused can seldom be forgotten but may, with grace, be forgiven.
3:31 AM - The love and joy we have shared, however, without the forgiveness of our wrongs, can only be forgotten. Then they become as if they never were.
3:27 AM - My gift is that of forgiveness, my curse one of remembrance. That is where the true pain lies: in the memory of what was that can never be so again.
6:19 AM - I find it easy to forgive your words and actions, all the lies, deceit, infidelity, disrespect, and resentment. I find it easy, however disappointed I may be.
6:24 AM - Because I am the one who pushed you to do, say, and feel those things. By my actions, I manifested exactly what I expected but, ironically, was my greatest fear.
6:28 AM - I needed to know how real your feelings were, how steadfast your promises could be. To what lengths and depths your love for me, me at my very worst, truly were.
6:34 AM - I know it may be hard to understand what I am saying. And if you do, you are perfectly justified in feeling revulsion...I am truly sorry for how I am.
6:40 AM - In the process of pushing the envelope ever further, I not only hurt you but I was forced to accept my own condemnation and self-hatred, risking too much.
6:45 AM - Because I risked losing you. I risked my stability, my independence, an entire life of events I strive for and desired to share with you.
6:49 AM - I destroyed my dream and I manipulated you into helping me turn it all to dust...though I wished you had held firm. I was desperate that you would.
6:53 AM - And so now I mourn the promising future that I pointlessly killed...and I despise myself for it and I am afraid of what I am able to allow myself to become.
6:57 AM - You don't have to forgive me for all the heartache I knowingly caused...I just ask that you remember me for what I was in the beginning and not what I ended as.
7:03 AM - I love you. I love you more than any other, living or dead, present or past. And for that reason, not out of egoistical or self-serving ideas, I regret it all.
7:06 AM - I could have remained the man you were drawn to, the man you fell in love with. I could have surpassed him. But I didn't. I forced myself to bury that man.
7:09 AM - And you deserve so much better than what I sickly perverted myself into. You deserve better.
10:32 AM - "Change your heart, look around you. Change your heart, it will astound you. I need your lovin', like the sunshine...but everybody's gotta learn sometimes..."
3:28 PM - Any response from you more than responding by ignoring my messages...would really mean a lot to me. I opened a gaping hole in my emotional security...
3:34 PM - It took a lot out of me to admit all of that to you...now your cold silence is making me feel like you think it unimportant, the ramblings of an ill mind...
3:38 PM - I started this series of texts more than 24 hours ago, probably the most texting I've done in so short a time, yet every one has gone unanswered.
3:42 PM - I know you have checked your phone during all that time, I know you are aware of at least portions of my confessions...
3:47 PM - And it feels cruel to me, to willingly leave me prostrated, imprisoned in silence, denied evidence that what I said matters in any way to you...
3:54 PM - I have no choice but to assume your deaf ear means that I have misplaced my emotions again...so I will leave you to move on. I will allow you to forget.
3:56 PM - I love you. And I'm sorry. Goodbye, Lady...
Tuesday, September 26, 2006
Tuesday, September 19, 2006
Thursday, September 7, 2006
How Goes the Flow?
So it looks like things in my life have shifted once again. I will destroy the life I knew and begin fresh one more time. I don't know if I have what it takes.
Well, that's not true. I know I have what it takes. I just know I don't want to give it. I'm at the bottom of a dry pit without the will to crawl and tear myself out again. I have no reason to do that, I've lost and squandered and wasted all my reasons, so I'm left with sheer principle.
When I have tried so ridiculously to frame my life around principle, I fail now in desperate self-destruction. Is it easier to die, starving and alone, in this hole?
I'll find out.
Sunday, September 3, 2006
This she told me when I texted her after waking up asking where she was. "Sorry I didn't leave a note, I thought you were out for the night." Who gives a fuck? Leave a note anyway. If you are going to leave suddenly, take the car, and imprison me within this apartment, all just to spend the night with the biggest cock whore I have ever met (yes, including my ex-girlfriend Allie) that is now a reefer head in addition, it doesn't matter if you think I'm going to be sleeping until you return home. If, by some miracle of circumstance, I don't sleep more than 18 hours and actually get up wondering what the fuck is going on, write a note. Just, ya know, in case. And why the fuck would she want to "spend the night" in some shit ass cramped dorm or campus apartment, anyway? Because she went there to get drunk and high and suck dick, that's why. And the reason she isn't back home yet, even though it's nearly noon, is not because she enjoys sleeping in in unfamiliar places with unfamiliar people around her, it's because she's fucking hung over and feels too tired/sick to make the 20 minute drive back. I try calling her to figure out exactly what the fuck she's doing but she doesn't pick up her phone. Ever. Not for me, that is. Anyone else, she'll rush to pull herself off my cock in the middle of a sexual frenzy just because her fucking cell phone rings.
Besides all of that, she shut the fucking cat in the bathroom. And our cat enjoys opening up drawers and cupboards and eating paper and being a fucking pain in the ass. So, when I got up out of bed and really needed to take a leak, I can't get into the goddam bathroom because the cat has pulled open a drawer right in front of the door. I try and try, using a rod and a coat hanger, for nearly half an hour to push this fucking drawer back in so I can get the door open and finally empty my bladder, but no dice. So, what options do I have? Especially after Sarah's annoying disregard for the fact that I still care about her and want to be with her and I'm ready to start packing up everything I own and take a dump on the floor with a note attached saying, "Was fun, but in the end this is what being with you was worth to me."?
I bashed the bathroom door down. It snapped into three pieces after I rammed my shoulder into it about a dozen times. I got to see how the outside of it is wood but inside there's nothing but cardboard. This would explain why I was able to so easily destroy the bathroom door without injuring myself in any way.
So now the door sits, in its perfect trinity-like state of destruction, on the living room floor behind the couch. Now, we have no bathroom door. And I'll be fucking pissed when Sarah tells me to swap the laundry room door and put it on the bathroom, which I know she will demand, as well as I will be pissed when she gets bitchy and probably tells me I need to pay for it or move out of something a snobby bitch like her would tell me when she's the fucking idiot who left the cat locked in there.
And now I have no more cigarettes. I haven't had a smoke in nearly four hours and I'm starting to get the itch. I'm starting to feel like causing some bloodshed. I want a fucking cigarette.
But, the ho took the car. The ho left me with the only the money that was currently in my pockets: $2.95. The ho answered her phone (finally) about half an hour ago and when I asked when she would be back she just said, "In a while. Can I go back to sleep now?"
"Wait, what?" (the "what" being more of a "why" as in "why the fuck are you sleeping past noon over at Elizabeth's")
"I was sleeping."
The bitch hung up on me. So she could sleep off her booze/weed/cum filled coma. Meanwhile I don't have the means or money to even get a pack of cigarettes to smoke away my stress at this obviously fucked up situation.
Well, things will not be pretty when she does come back.
What the fuck do I care, anyway? She slobbered all over another dude's cock a few hours after she kissed me and told me she loved me. She broke up with me and fucking broke my heart, listened to me plead to her, listened to me profess my deepest feelings to her, all while she kept her tonguing that prick's tool the night before her little secret. I didn't even get the decency of her telling me about it even after that. No, I found out about it because I know her fucking internet passwords and read her messages.
She still tells me she loves me. She still wants me to cuddle her and rub her and kiss her goodnight, even though (yes, once again because I read through her messages) she has no intention of getting back together with me.
Well, what the fuck do I care about her shitty bathroom door? I should ram my shoulder into the cunt's face a dozen times, rather than have to snap apart the bathroom door like that. The relationship is over, despite how much effort and determination I put into it. She can fucking go to hell.
I just want a motherfucking cigarette, for fuck's sake!